A testicular pain doctor's desk

Testicular Pain Causes

Testicular pain can be caused by several conditions, some of which are considered medical emergencies that require immediate medical attention and perhaps even surgery in order to prevent removal of the affected testicle. Here is a look at some common and less common causes of testicular pain.

Trauma

Extreme testicular pain can be caused by trauma to the testicles. Although painful, it is usually only temporary.
 
The majority of cases of testicular injuries are due to blunt trauma which can be due to sports injuries, a direct kick or punch, or car accidents.
 
Bruising and swelling of the scrotum and testicles can occur. Sometimes, trauma can cause a more serious injury that requires emergency surgery.

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that needs immediate surgical treatment.
 
The condition is caused by a testicle twisting inside the scrotum. This can happen spontaneously or as a result of direct trauma. When the testicle twists, blood flow is interrupted to the affected testicle, resulting in the “death” of the testicle. 
 
Torsion is most common in newborns and young boys between 12-18 years of age, although it can occur at any age.

Epididymitis

Epididymitis is recognized as inflammation of the epididymis. It is most often the cause of an infection and it is also the most common cause of testicular pain in men 18 years of age and older, but it can affect men of all ages.

For sexually active men, the most common cause of the condition is a STI such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia.
 
An abnormality in the genitourinary system, or an enlarged prostate gland, common among older men, are other causes of epididymitis.

Torsion of a Testicular Appendage

Torsion of a testicular appendage is a condition that is a common cause of testicular pain in young boys between ages 7 and 14.
 
The testicular and epididymal appendage are tissues with no real function. The appendages are actually remains from human embryonic development. Similar to testicular torsion, when these tissue structures twist, blood flow can be restricted, resulting in testicular pain.

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal hernia is a condition that causes part of the intestine to protrude through a muscular defect in the testicular area and slide into the scrotum. Common symptoms of the condition include scrotal swelling and testicular discomfort.

Orchitis 

Orchitis is an inflammatory medical condition of the testicles. It usually occurs due to an infectious process. It can be found in combination with epididymitis, specifically if epididymitis has occurred for several days before treatment
 
The majority of orchitis cases are caused by a viral mumps infection, but it can also be caused by other viruses and bacteria.

Testicular Tumor

It is rare for a tumor to cause testicular pain, but it is still important to perform regular self-examinations of the testicles. Early detection of a lump or mass can improve the prognosis for testicular cancer.

Kidney Stone

Pain that occurs due to a kidney stone can sometimes radiate into the groin area and cause testicular pain. 
 

Last Updated: June 29, 2017